Computer history | Different generations of computers

what is computer?

Computers are the device which is designed to carry out the sequence of arithmetic and logical operation via computer programming. Modern computers are advance designed to carry out an extreme range of tasks. It is electronic and digital. Machinery and electronic part of the system which we can touch and feel like a transistor, devices, circuits, and wires are called hardware. Part of the system which is instructed in form of data is called software, which we can see but can’t touch.

History of computer|Generation of computer

Charles Babbage, commonly known as the father of the computer. He was the first who invented the mechanical computer with the concept of digital programming. The idea of inventing computers came in mind for minimizing the effort of the arithmetic operation. The computers we use had it beginning in the early 19th century. The idea kept on getting developed generation after generation. Evolution of computer can be divided into five generations.

First Generation: Vacuum Tubes (1940-1956)

The first generation computer system was way too large, almost the size of a room. Systems of this generation used vacuum tubes for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory. It relied on machine language, the lowest programming language used by computers and used to solve only one problem at a time.

first Generation of computer

Paper tapes and punched was used for inputting data and results were displayed through printouts. This generation of computers was way too expensive to use for an average person. It also needs a high amount of electric supply which led to overheating the system and sometimes causes malfunction. First generation computers were UNIVAC and ENIAC.

Second Generation: Transistors (1956-1963)

Second Generation used transistors instead of vacuum tubes. Transistors were better than vacuum tubes in many aspects. It was a lot cheaper, faster, smaller and energy-efficient than vacuum tubes.

Like the previous generation, second generation computers also releases lots of heats which subjected to computer damage. Though it was a great improvement of its generation. Input and output systems were the same as the first generation.

Second Generation of computer

Second Generation computers used assembly language instead of binary machine language. An early version of high-level programming languages like COBOL and FORTRON were developed during this period. This programming language allowed programmer and developers to specify instructions in words.

Third Generation: Integrated Circuits (1964-1971)

Integrated circuits were was the most important change in the history of computers. In this generation, transistors were miniaturized and placed on silicon chips called semiconductors. This allowed computers to run smoother and faster than before.

third generations of computer

The process of input and output were changed. This generation also introduced new devices like keyboard and monitor. Input was instructed through keyboards to interfaced with an operating system and displayed through monitors. With an introduction of an operating system allowed other application to run on this platform. It also allowed performing more than one task at a time.

Forth Generation: Microprocessors (1971-Present)

Computers we use today are forth generation of computers. The first generation of the computer used integrated circuits which were the size of a room. In the third generation, the integrated circuits were minimized and reduced the size of a child’s palm on a single silicon chip.

Forth Generations of computer, modern computers

This integrated circuits were so fast that they allowed multiple tasks at a time. Introduction of CPU(Central Processing Unit) brought great impact for commercial and personal uses. In 21st century, inventions of laptops made computers portable and easy to carry.

Fifth Generation: Artificial Intelligence (Present and Beyond)

Fifth Generation computer is and will be based on AI (Artificial Intelligence). This AI and still developing and getting better day by day. Today we use some AIs that are voice recognition, face recognition, and image recognition.

AI fifth generations of computer

The face of the computer is being changed slowly by quantum computing and nanotechnology. The main goal of the fifth generation is to build an AIs based computers which understand simple human languages and self-recognition.